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ACTIVE OILS AND CORNEOTHERAPY


Till recently horny skin layer was considered to be a passive barrier, preventing penetration of cosmetic products into the skin. At present it is recognized that the state of skin and complexion in many respects depend on the integrity of horny layer. Therefore one of the most promising lines in cosmetics is developing a strategy of cosmetic care, directed to the skin horny layer. At the heart of this strategy lies protection and regeneration of damaged skin protective layer and prevention of pathological processes due to destruction of this layer. This direction was named “corneotherapy”
The key role in corneotherapy belongs to active oils. Therefore it is very important to do a right choice of these oils.
Barrier is the main thing
When horny layer is damaged, various pathogens, toxins and allergens penetrate into the skin. And water, on the contrary, leaves epidermis. But, above all, when the integrity of horny layer is broken and its permeability increases, the cells of epidermis start to produce signal substances (cytokines), which regulate regeneration processes in horny layer. In case the horny layer is seriously damaged or it happens too often the cells of epidermis produce too much cytokines and in such a case they cease to be useful and, on the contrary, cause inflammatory reaction.
The barrier layer of skin consists of horny cells (horny scales or corneocytes) and lipid stratum, having rather complicated structure. Just this lipid stratum has become an object of intensive investigations lately. For example, it was ascertained that many ingredients can damage lipid stratum and upset the skin function. The scientists have also found out that deficiency of definite substances, namely, irreplaceable fatty acid (linoleic, linolenic and gamma-linolenic) results in disturbance of skin barrier function and other problems. 
Taking into consideration all these factors there was developed a general strategy of epidermal barrier regeneration which includes:
1) Exclusion from cosmetic products substances that may destroy skin lipids.
2) Regular usage of regenerative products
3) Inclusion of active oils, containing irreplaceable fatty acids, in cosmetic products

Noli nocere (Do not Cause Harm)
It is very important to use skin cleansing products on the basis of soft cleansing additives.
This is especially important for persons with dry skin and skin diseases. Among them are surfactants on the basis of sugars (glycosides) and aminoacids, coconut oil (cocamidopropyl betaine). Not all know that especially harmful for skin is sodium lauryl sulfate. Its irritative and destructive effect is so big that it has become a standard of skin irritant in scientific experiments. And on the contrary, sodium laureth sulfate, especially in combination with cocamidopropyl betaine, acts very delicately. Besides, all cleansing products must not leave a film on the skin surface as the film may contain irritating and damaging substances. It is advisable to use cleansing products, containing natural oils – they soften the skin and decrease irritation and seabuckthorn oil promotes healing of damaged skin. 

It is important to avoid products, containing alcohol and especially acetone. These substances damage protective skin barrier and overdry the skin.

Reconstraction of damaged skin barriers
Lipid skin barrier is easily destroyed, but most often we do not even make note of how it happens.  The fact is that in case of healthy skin this barrier is easily restored. However, if the barrier is destroyed every so often or if the skin is prone to irritation, then it rehabilitates itself ineffectively and this process is accompanied by itch, redness and irritation. If the barrier is chronically damaged one can observe the skin dryness and desquamation. In order to help the skin to repair its lipid barrier one should use regenerative cosmetic products that intensify molecular synthesis and cells fission. The products may contain vitamins A, E, C and B3, plant extracts (aloe, plantain, green tea and so on), hyaluronic acid, aminoacids, antioxidants (alpha-lipoic acid), minerals (Dead Sea minerals).

Active oils
Perhaps the most interesting discovery in investigating skin barrier is the fact that the skin is able to absorb fats and oil, applied to it, and extract necessary fatty acids from them.  These fatty acids are used not only for building lipid stratum, but also for synthesis of such important molecules as prostaglandins and other regulators of local immune reactions.  And what is more important, fatty acids, used for synthesis of these regulators, belong to irreplaceable fatty acids, that is, a human body is not able to synthesize them and must get them from outside. These fatty acids include three polyunsaturated fatty acids – linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic.

In theory arachidonic acid is a metabolite of linoleic acid, but practically this way is not realized in human beings and they get arachidonic acid almost entirely from outside. And this is not bad as metabolites of arachidonic acid intensify inflammatory reactions and play a large role in pathogenesis of many kinds of dermatosis.  And on the contrary, those bioregulators, which are synthesized from linoleic and linolenic acids, possess anti-inflammatory effect. Besides, linoleic acid is necessary for forming proper lipid barrier.
Deficiency of  irreplaceable fatty acids adversely affects the skin and leads to appearing dryness, reddening and desquamation. This fact is known from the thirties. As linoleic and linolenic acids belong to different families (omega 6 and omega 3), they do not turn into each other. Therefore the most useful oils are the oils with both these acids. Among them are avocado, rosehip, kukui nut, wheat germ, black currant, evening primrose and borage oils. The last three oils are especially valuable as in addition to linoleic and linolenic acids they contain gamma-linolenic acid, that synthesizes prostaglandin 1, possessing anti-inflammatory effect. 

From  Chaos to Order
One of the main problems of corneotherapy is an appropriate delivery of active oils to skin as simple skin smearing by pure undiluted oils do not always lead to success. The thing is that lipids of horny layer are organized in bilayer structurated layers whereas oils have no structures at all. If undiluted natural oils, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, are applied too often and abundantly, it may result in liquefaction and disorganization of lipid structures and, consequently, in worsening of the barrier function.
In order not to disturb barrier function the oils are used as a part of emulsions and for their delivery so-called structurated lipids are used . The most famous ingredients in this category are liposomes. As liposomes structure resembles the structures of lipid barrier, they can be built into lipid stratum of epidermis like patches closing holes.  Apart from liposomes there are also lamellar emulsions where lipids are organized in plane membranes (plates).  They are able to close damaged barrier along the whole length. The last development lies in nanocapsules, containing active oils. For example, nanocapsules, containing black currant oil. Being extremely small (smaller than spaces between cells) they easily penetrate into skin and deliver the “repair set” where it is really needed.

Conclusion
The base of cosmetic care is taking care of skin horny layer, protecting it and controlling damages in time. It is especially important for patients with various skin diseases (atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, acne and so on).  The strategy of cosmetic care, based on protection and restoration of the barrier, may help not only to reduce symptoms of skin dryness, redness and irritation, but also to lower the frequency of allergic reactions due to cosmetic products and noticeably improve the skin health as a whole. 
 
Magiray Cosmetic Products, Used for Corneotherapy 
Pearl Cleansing Milk, containing grape seed oil, shea butter, borage oil, soapwort, green tea, ginkgo and tomato extracts, vitamin C and natural pearl powder. Nourishes, cleanses and moisturizes the skin, restores damaged lipid barrier
Toner for Normal to Dry Skin free of alcohol. Contains lactic acid, butcher’s broom, algae and cucumber extracts.  Delicately cleanses and tones up the skin.
ClarityPlus  - tender cleansing face foam, containing panthenol, seabuckthorn oil, extracts of chamomile, cucumber and althaea. Thoroughly cleanses the skin without disturbing lipid barrier. Easily washed off,  leaving no film
Replenishing Cream with liposomes, irreplaceable fatty acids, hyaluronic acid, vitamin E, carrot oil and soybean sterol. Moisturizes the skin, promotes restoring of lipid barrier, prevents damaging of horny layer

Complete Lift Complex – anti-age line
CLC Eye Contour Serum with borage and  avocado oils, shea butter, caviar extract, camellia extract, alpha-lipoic and hyaluronic acids, squalane, acetyl-hexapeptide. In addition to pronounced lifting effect the preparation restores lipid barrier and fills up deficiency of irreplaceable fatty acids. 
CLC Eye Contour Mask with borage, avocado, calendula and carrot oils,  shea butter, tomato and green tea extracts, acetyl-hexapeptide-3, squalane. In addition to pronounced lifting effect the preparation restores lipid barrier and fills up deficiency of irreplaceable fatty acids. 
CLC Skin Renovation Moisturizes with nanocapsules, containing black currant seed oil, peptide-decorinyl, borage and avocado oils, shea butter, caviar extract, alpha-lipoic acid and other active components. Provides the skin with irreplaceable fatty acids, decreases dryness, restores lipid barrier, improves skin collagen structure, improves elasticity and speeds up the skin renewal
CLC Wrinkle Away Cream with nanocapsules, containing black currant seed oil, peptide-decorinyl, shea butter, extracts of pomegranate, aloe, green tea, tomato, algae, alpha-lipoic acid and Dead Sea salts. Decreases dryness due to deficiency of irreplaceable fatty acids, actively stimulates collagen synthesis, improving its structure, improves elasticity and smoothes out wrinkles.

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